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ACS Nano. 2013 Nov 26;7(11):10048-65. doi: 10.1021/nn404083m. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Two-wave nanotherapy to target the stroma and optimize gemcitabine delivery to a human pancreatic cancer model in mice.

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1
Division of NanoMedicine, Department of Medicine, ‡Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, and §California NanoSystems Institute, University of California , Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

Abstract

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) elicits a dense stromal response that blocks vascular access because of pericyte coverage of vascular fenestrations. In this way, the PDAC stroma contributes to chemotherapy resistance in addition to causing other problems. In order to improve the delivery of gemcitabine, a first-line chemotherapeutic agent, a PEGylated drug-carrying liposome was developed, using a transmembrane ammonium sulfate gradient to encapsulate the protonated drug up to 20% w/w. However, because the liposome was precluded from entering the xenograft site due to the stromal interference, we developed a first-wave nanocarrier that decreases pericyte coverage of the vasculature through interference in the pericyte recruiting TGF-β signaling pathway. This was accomplished using a polyethyleneimine (PEI)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNP) for molecular complexation to a small molecule TGF-β inhibitor, LY364947. LY364947 contains a nitrogen atom that attaches, through H-bonding, to PEI amines with a high rate of efficiency. The copolymer coating also facilitates systemic biodistribution and retention at the tumor site. Because of the high loading capacity and pH-dependent LY364947 release from the MSNPs, we achieved rapid entry of IV-injected liposomes and MSNPs at the PDAC tumor site. This two-wave approach provided effective shrinkage of the tumor xenografts beyond 25 days, compared to the treatment with free drug or gemcitabine-loaded liposomes only. Not only does this approach overcome stromal resistance to drug delivery in PDAC, but it also introduces the concept of using a stepwise engineered approach to address a range of biological impediments that interfere in nanocancer therapy in a spectrum of cancers.

PMID:
24143858
PMCID:
PMC3878438
DOI:
10.1021/nn404083m
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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