Send to

Choose Destination
Behav Res Methods. 2014 Sep;46(3):904-11. doi: 10.3758/s13428-013-0403-5.

Concreteness ratings for 40 thousand generally known English word lemmas.

Author information

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000, Gent, Belgium,


Concreteness ratings are presented for 37,058 English words and 2,896 two-word expressions (such as zebra crossing and zoom in), obtained from over 4,000 participants by means of a norming study using Internet crowdsourcing for data collection. Although the instructions stressed that the assessment of word concreteness would be based on experiences involving all senses and motor responses, a comparison with the existing concreteness norms indicates that participants, as before, largely focused on visual and haptic experiences. The reported data set is a subset of a comprehensive list of English lemmas and contains all lemmas known by at least 85 % of the raters. It can be used in future research as a reference list of generally known English lemmas.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center