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J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013 Dec 5;129:6-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.09.002. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Attributes characterizing spontaneous ultra-weak photon signals of human subjects.

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LACDR/ Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.; Sino-Dutch Centre for Preventive and Personalized Medicine, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Sixty visible range photon signals spontaneously emitted from the dorsal side of both hands of fifteen human subjects are analyzed with the aim of finding their attributes. The signals are of 30 min duration and detected in bins of 50 ms by two synchronized photo multipliers sensitive in the range (290-630 nm). Each signal is a time series of 36,000 elements. The attributes of its signal are determined from the statistical properties of time series. The mean and variance of time series determine the attributes signal strength and intercept (p₀) and slope (p₁) of the Fano Factor curve. The photon count distribution of the time series determines squeezed state parameters |α|, r, θ and ϕ, squeezed state index (SSI), and sum of the squares of residue (SSR). The correlation between simultaneously detected signals determines intercept (c₀) and slope (c₁) of their correlation curve. The variability of attributes is studied by calculating them in smaller intervals covering the entire signal. The profile of attribute at 12 sites in a subject is more informative and biologically relevant.


Biophoton; Cluster analysis; Fano Factor; Left-right correlation; Meditation; Ultra-weak photon emission

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