Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol Lett. 2014 Jan 3;224(1):101-7. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.10.002. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Detection and simultaneous quantification of three smoking-related ethylthymidine adducts in human salivary DNA by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Author information

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62142, Taiwan. Electronic address:


Smoking cigarette increases levels of certain ethylated DNA adducts in certain tissues and urine. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor of various cancers and DNA ethylation is involved in smoking-related carcinogenesis. Among the ethylated DNA adducts, O(2)-ethylthymidine (O(2)-edT) and the promutagenic O(4)-ethylthymidine (O(4)-edT) are poorly repaired and they can accumulate in vivo. Using an accurate, highly sensitive, and quantitative assay based on stable isotope dilution nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS), O(2)-edT, N(3)-edT (N(3)-ethylthymidine), and O(4)-edT adducts in human salivary DNA were simultaneous detected and quantified. Saliva is easily accessible and available and it can be a potential target in searching for noninvasive biomarkers. Under the highly selected reaction monitoring (H-SRM) mode, salivary samples from 20 smokers and 13 nonsmokers were analyzed. Starting with 50 μg of DNA isolated from about 3.5 mL of saliva, levels of O(2)-edT, N(3)-edT, and O(4)-edT in 20 smokers' salivary DNA samples were 5.3±6.2, 4.5±5.7, 4.2±8.0 in 10(8) normal nucleotides, respectively, while those in 13 nonsmokers were non-detectable. In addition, statistically significant correlations (p<0.0001) were observed between levels of O(2)-edT and N(3)-edT (γ=0.7388), between levels of O(2)-edT and O(4)-edT (γ=0.8839), and between levels of N(3)-edT, and O(4)-edT (γ=0.7835). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of detection and quantification of these three ethylthymidine adducts in human salivary DNA, which might be potential biomarkers for exposure to ethylating agents and possibly for cancer risk assessment.


DNA adduct; Ethylthymidine; Mass spectrometry; Nanoflow LC; Saliva

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center