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Vet Microbiol. 2013 Dec 27;167(3-4):345-56. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.09.024. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Reassortants of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and establishment of a novel porcine H1N2 influenza virus, lineage in Germany.

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Department of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Hans-Knöll-Str. 2, 07745 Jena, Germany.


The incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (pdmH1N1) into the German pig population was investigated in a serosurvey and by virological means between June 2009 and December 2012. Analysis of 23,116 pig sera from a total of 2,666 herds revealed 224 herds that reacted with pdmH1N1 but not with the prevalent avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus. Sixty-six pdmH1N1 strains and their reassortant derivatives (pdmH1huN2, huH3pdmN1) have been collected since November 2009. Sequencing of three pdmH1N1, 20 pdmH1huN2 and one huH3pdmN1 strains with conventional and next generation sequencing techniques and subsequent phylogenetic analyses with available sequence data revealed the emergence of five distinct reassortant genotypes in Europe. The most frequent genotype emerged at least three times independently, one of which (Papenburg lineage) established a stable infection chain and became more prevalent in pigs than pdmH1N1 in Germany.


Next generation sequencing; Phylogenetic analysis; Reassortant; Serosurvey; Swine influenza A virus; Zoonotic infection

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