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Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Jan;53(1):165-72. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ket334. Epub 2013 Oct 17.

Synovial joint fluid cytokine levels in hip disease.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan.



The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytokine level characteristics in the hip joint fluid, including rapidly destructive coxopathy (RDC), OA, osteonecrosis (ON) of the femoral head and RA.


Thirty-three hips with RDC, 57 with OA, 36 with ON and 10 with RA were included in the study. OA hips were divided into two groups: 20 hips with early OA without joint space narrowing and 37 hips with terminal OA. ON hips were divided into three groups: 13 hips with <3 mm collapse, 14 hips with >3 mm collapse and 9 hips with terminal ON. Joint fluid was collected during surgery. Cytokine levels including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence.


All measured cytokine levels in RDC were significantly higher than those in OA (P < 0.05). Terminal OA showed higher cytokine levels than those in early OA (P < 0.05). IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the ON group with >3 mm collapse were higher than those found in the ON group with <3 mm collapse. In comparing cytokine levels between RDC, terminal OA, RA and terminal ON, RDC showed significantly higher IL-8 levels than terminal OA and RA (P < 0.05).


IL-8 levels in RDC were higher than in the other hip diseases. The IL-8 level may reflect the aggressiveness of joint destruction in RDC, and IL-6 and TNF-α levels may also reflect ongoing destruction in OA and ON.


cytokine; hip disease; osteoarthritis; rapidly destructive coxopathy; synovial fluid

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