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Poult Sci. 2013 Nov;92(11):3017-25. doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03216.

Effects of frying and boiling on the formation of heterocyclic amines in braised chicken.

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  • 1College of Food Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchung, 330045, China; and.


Braised chicken is a traditional ready-to-eat poultry product produced by frying chicken coated with maltose or honey and then boiling it in a soup that is circularly used. This study examined the effects of the frying time, honey concentration, boiling time, and cycle times of the soup on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HA), a class of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds generated in heated muscle meat. Nine HA in chicken and recycled soups were analyzed by HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. 1-Methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman), and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) were detected in most samples, and the amount of each HA increased with the frying or boiling time. Chicken skin was found to have higher HA content than chicken meat. More HA were detected in the soup than in the chicken, in most cases. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazoquinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were also detected in chicken and soup circularly boiled 20 times, and the total amount of HA reached 68.80 and 96.98 ng/g in chicken and soup, respectively.

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