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J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2014 Feb;67(2):159-62. doi: 10.1038/ja.2013.96. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Functional analysis of hatomarubigin biosynthesis genes and production of a new hatomarubigin using a heterologous expression system.

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Department of Medicinal and Life Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Japan.


The function of hatomarubigin biosynthesis genes was analyzed by heterologous expression of the hrb gene cluster. Streptomyces lividans carrying a gene cluster consisting of 25 genes (hrbR1-hrbX) with hrbY was found to produce all the known hatomarubigins including hatomarubigin D, which has a unique dimeric angucycline with a methylene linkage. Gene disruption was used in this heterologous expression system to analyze the function of hrbF, a gene with no homology to any known angucycline biosynthesis genes. A new metabolite was detected in the fermented broth of S. lividans expressing the hrb genes lacking hrbF and was designated hatomarubigin F. This compound was identified as 5-hydroxyhatomarubigin E by NMR spectroscopic analysis, suggesting that HrbF regulates the regiospecificity of oxygenation enzymes.

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