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J Intern Med. 2013 Nov;274(5):399-413. doi: 10.1111/joim.12083.

Telomeres and human health.

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Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; The Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.


Telomeres are the tips of chromosomes and consist of proteins and hexanucleotide tandem repeats of DNA. The DNA repeats are shortened at each mitotic division of normal cells, and the telomere length chronicles how many divisions the cell has undergone. Thus, telomere length is a marker of fundamental biological pathways. It has been possible to measure telomere length for more than 20 years, and it has been established that telomere length is associated with age, sex and lifestyle factors. Here, the current knowledge of telomere length as a biomarker of disease susceptibility and mortality will be reviewed. In addition, technical difficulties and the reasons why measurement of telomeres has still not been introduced into routine clinical practice will be discussed. Findings from recent studies conducted in many thousands of individuals indicate that telomere length is not-or at best only marginally-independently associated with risk of common disorders such as cardiovascular, pulmonary and neoplastic diseases. However, in sufficiently powered studies, short telomeres are repeatedly and independently found to be associated with increased risk of early death in the general population or in subsets of individuals. This indicates that measurement of telomeres could be a valuable prognostic biomarker in many clinical settings. However, whether short telomeres are a causal factor for or simply a marker of increased risk of early death must be determined. Finally, how Mendelian randomization studies could clarify this issue, and which clinical studies might be carried out to refine this very promising biomarker for routine clinical use will be considered.


biomarker; epidemiology; mortality; telomere length

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