Send to

Choose Destination
Trends Biotechnol. 2013 Dec;31(12):668-77. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

Author information

Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81130 UTM, Skudai, Malaysia; City of Scientific Research and Technology Application, New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt. Electronic address:


For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors.


animal feed and aquaculture; fungal immunomodulatory proteins; industrial production; lectins; medical application; mushroom immunomodulators; polysaccharides; terpenes and terpenoids

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center