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Hormones (Athens). 2013 Jul-Sep;12(3):397-404.

Decreased circulating 25-(OH) Vitamin D concentrations in obese female children and adolescents: positive associations with Retinol Binding Protein-4 and Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin.

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Childhood Obesity Clinic, First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.



Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adult as well as childhood obesity. Retinol-binding-protein-4 (RBP-4) and Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) are altered in obese individuals. The aim of this study was to examine circulating 25-(OH) Vitamin D (25-(OH) D) concentrations according to BMI and its associations with RBP-4 and NGAL in female children and adolescents.


Seventy-nine (79) children, aged 8-16 years, were studied and divided into four groups: 19 control (BMI z-score range -2.15 - 1.24), 20 overweight (1.34 - 2.49), 20 obese (2.50 - 2.87) and 20 ultra-obese (3 - 4.37). Patients were derived from a Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Plasma 25-(OH) D, RBP-4 and NGAL concentrations were measured with specific assays.


Plasma 25-(OH) D concentrations were decreased significantly in the ultra-obese (p=0.005) and marginally in the obese group (p=0.05) compared to the control group. In the entire BMI range, Spearman correlations revealed strong positive associations between 25-(OH) D and RBP-4 (r=0.349, p=0.002) and between 25-(OH) D and NGAL (r=0.338, p=0.003).


25-(OH) D is deficient in a clinical population of obese female children and adolescents, whereas in the entire BMI range 25-(OH) D is associated with RBP4 and NGAL concentrations. Longitudinal studies are needed to reveal the role of these associations in metabolic alterations related to childhood and adolescent obesity and associated metabolic morbidities.

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