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Gene. 2014 Jan 1;533(1):142-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.09.103. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Molecular evolution and nucleotide diversity of nuclear plastid phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene in Triticeae (Poaceae).

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Biology Department, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada, B3H 3C3.


Levels of nucleotide divergence provide key evidence in the evolution of polyploids. The nucleotide diversity of 226 sequences of pgk1 gene in Triticeae species was characterized. Phylogenetic analyses based on the pgk1 gene were carried out to determine the diploid origin of polyploids within the tribe in relation to their A(u), B, D, St, Ns, P, and H haplomes. Sequences from the Ns genome represented the highest nucleotide diversity values for both polyploid and diploid species with π=0.03343 and θ=0.03536 for polyploid Ns genome sequences and π=0.03886 and θ=0.03886 for diploid Psathyrostachys sequences, while Triticum urartu represented the lowest diversity among diploid species at π=0.0011 and θ=0.0011. Nucleotide variation of diploid Aegilops speltoides (π=0.2441, presumed the B genome donor of Triticum species) is five times higher than that (π=0.00483) of B genome in polyploid species. Significant negative Tajima's D values for the St, A(u), and D genomes along with high rates of polymorphisms and low sequence diversity were observed. Origins of the A(u), B, and D genomes were linked to T. urartu, A. speltoides, and A. tauschii, respectively. Putative St genome donor was Pseudoroegneria, while Ns and P donors were Psathyrostachys and Agropyron. H genome diploid donor is Hordeum.


Evolution; MP; NJ; Nucleotide diversity; PGK; Plastid phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene; TBR; Triticeae; maximum-parsimony; neighbor-joining; plastid phosphoglycerate kinase; tree bisection–reconnection

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