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Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Mar;21(2):735-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.08.012. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Facile synthesis of calcium silicate hydrate using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant assisted by ultrasonic irradiation.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center of Advanced Material, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) consisting of nanosheets has been successfully synthesized assisted by a tip ultrasonic irradiation (UI) method using calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)·4H2O), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3·9H2O) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in water. Systematic studies found that reaction time of ultrasonic irradiation and concentrations of surfactant (SDS) in the system were important factors to control the crystallite size and morphologies. The products were characterized by X-ray power diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The size-strain plot (SSP) method was used to study the individual contributions of crystallite sizes and lattice strain on the peak broadening of the CSH. These characterization techniques revealed the successful formation of a crystalline phase with an average crystallite size of about 13 nm and nanosheet morphology at a reaction time of 10 min UI with 0.2 g SDS in solvent which were found to be optimum time and concentrations of SDS for the synthesis of CSH powders.


Calcium silicate hydrate; Nanosheets; Surfactant; Ultrasonic irradiation

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