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Mol Cell. 2013 Oct 10;52(1):87-100. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.09.009.

Dosage of Dyrk1a shifts cells within a p21-cyclin D1 signaling map to control the decision to enter the cell cycle.

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  • 1Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Abstract

Mammalian cells have a remarkable capacity to compensate for heterozygous gene loss or extra gene copies. One exception is Down syndrome (DS), where a third copy of chromosome 21 mediates neurogenesis defects and lowers the frequency of solid tumors. Here we combine live-cell imaging and single-cell analysis to show that increased dosage of chromosome 21-localized Dyrk1a steeply increases G1 cell cycle duration through direct phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (CycD1). DS-derived fibroblasts showed analogous cell cycle changes that were reversed by Dyrk1a inhibition. Furthermore, reducing Dyrk1a activity increased CycD1 expression to force a bifurcation, with one subpopulation of cells accelerating proliferation and the other arresting proliferation by costabilizing CycD1 and the CDK inhibitor p21. Thus, dosage of Dyrk1a repositions cells within a p21-CycD1 signaling map, directing each cell to either proliferate or to follow two distinct cell cycle exit pathways characterized by high or low CycD1 and p21 levels.

PMID:
24119401
PMCID:
PMC4039290
DOI:
10.1016/j.molcel.2013.09.009
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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