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Ther Apher Dial. 2014 Jun;18(3):220-30. doi: 10.1111/1744-9987.12101. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Role of testosterone in the pathogenesis, progression, prognosis and comorbidity of men with chronic kidney disease.

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Hemodialysis Unit Kyanos Stavros Patras, Patras, Greece.


Testosterone deficiency and hypogonadism are common conditions in men with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A disturbed hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis due to CKD is thought to contribute to androgen deficiency. Data from experimental studies support the hypothesis that exogenous administration of testosterone may induce the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the production of endothelin and the regulation of anti- or/and proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and kidney damage. On the other hand, low testosterone levels in male patients with CKD are paradoxically associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality, possibly explained by anemia, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. In this article, we present an overview of clinical and experimental studies of the impact of testosterone on the progression and prognosis of male patients with CKD; even today, this remains a controversial issue.


Anemia; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Hypertension; Osteoporosis; Testosterone

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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