Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Nov;17(11):1355-62. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12147. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Improving survival and efficacy of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac grafts.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated into structurally and electrically functional myocardial tissue and have the potential to regenerate large regions of infarcted myocardium. One of the key challenges that needs to be addressed towards full-scale clinical application of hESCs is enhancing survival of the transplanted cells within ischaemic or scarred, avascular host tissue. Shortly after transplantation, most hESCs are lost as a result of multiple mechanical, cellular and host factors, and a large proportion of the remaining cells undergo apoptosis or necrosis shortly thereafter, as a result of loss of adhesion-related signals, ischaemia, inflammation or immunological rejection. Blocking the apoptotic signalling pathways of the cells, using pro-survival cocktails, conditioning hESCs prior to transplant, promoting angiogenesis, immunosuppressing the host and using of bioengineered matrices are among the emerging techniques that have been shown to optimize cell survival. This review presents an overview of the current strategies for optimizing cell and host tissue to improve the survival and efficacy of cardiac cells derived from pluripotent stem cells.

KEYWORDS:

apoptosis; cardiac; cardiomyocyte; differentiation; homing; human embryonic stem cell; hydrogel; myocardium; pluripotent stem cell; tissue engineering

PMID:
24118766
PMCID:
PMC4049630
DOI:
10.1111/jcmm.12147
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center