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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Oct;1300:261-277. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12250.

Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus.

Author information

1
North Shore Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York.
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Laboratori de Fisiologia Digestiva, Hospital de Mataró, Mataró, Spain.
4
Center for Gastroenterological Research, Catholic University, Leuven, Belgium.
5
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
6
Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
7
Trinity Academic Gastroenterology Group, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Erratum in

Abstract

The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).

KEYWORDS:

GERD; esophagus; lower esophageal segment; muscularis mucosa; smooth muscle; submucosa; upper esophageal segment

PMID:
24117648
PMCID:
PMC3889860
DOI:
10.1111/nyas.12250
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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