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Expert Rev Neurother. 2013 Oct;13(10):1107-16. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2013.836301.

The circadian rhythm in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current state of affairs.

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PsyQ Psycho-Medical Programs, Expertise Center Adult ADHD, Carel Reinierszkade 197, 2593 HR, The Hague, The Netherlands.


Adults with ADHD often have sleep problems that are caused by a delay of their internal circadian rhythm system. Such individuals are often typified as 'evening' or 'night' persons. This review focuses on the link between ADHD symptoms and the evening typology through multiple pathways. Etiology of the internal circadian rhythm system, the genetic basis for evening typology, overlap between ADHD symptoms and evening preference and risk factors for various chronic health conditions, including metabolic syndrome and cancer, are discussed. The treatment perspectives to reset the delayed rhythm in adults with ADHD involve psychoeducation on sleep hygiene, melatonin in the afternoon or evening and bright light therapy in the morning.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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