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Adv Biol Regul. 2014 Jan;54:99-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jbior.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

A lipidomic perspective on inflammatory macrophage eicosanoid signaling.

Author information

1
Departments of Chemistry/Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0601, USA.
2
Departments of Chemistry/Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0601, USA. Electronic address: edennis@ucsd.edu.

Abstract

Macrophages are central to essential physiological processes including the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity, but they are also central to a number of inflammatory disease states. These immune cells also possess remarkable plasticity and display various shades of functionalities based on changes in the surrounding molecular environment. Macrophage biology has defined various phenotypes and roles in inflammation based primarily on cytokine and chemokine profiles of cells in different activation states. Importantly, macrophages are elite producers of eicosanoids and other related lipid mediators during inflammation, but specific roles of these molecules have not generally been incorporated into the larger context of macrophage biology. In this review, we discuss the current classification of macrophage types and their roles in inflammation and disease, along with the practical challenges of studying biologically relevant phenotypes ex vivo. Using the latest advances in eicosanoid lipidomics, we highlight several key studies from our laboratory that provide a comprehensive understanding of how eicosanoid metabolism differs between macrophage phenotypes, along with how this metabolism is altered by changes in membrane fatty acid distribution and varied durations of Toll-like receptor (TLR) priming. In conclusion, we summarize several examples of the benefit of macrophage plasticity to develop accurate cellular mechanisms of lipid metabolism, and insights from lipidomic analyses about the differences in eicosanoid pathway enzyme activity in vitro vs. in cells ex vivo. Examples of new techniques to further understand the role of macrophage eicosanoid signaling in vivo are also discussed.

PMID:
24113376
PMCID:
PMC3946543
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbior.2013.09.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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