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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Apr;12(4):624-31.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.061. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Association between maternal iron supplementation during pregnancy and risk of celiac disease in children.

Author information

1
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway. Electronic address: ketil.stordal@fhi.no.
2
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
3
Endoscopy Unit, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of iron supplements during pregnancy affects the risk for celiac disease in children.

METHODS:

We assessed data from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study, in which individuals with celiac disease were identified by answers on questionnaires and linkage to the Norwegian Patient Register. Complete data were available for 78,846 children (mean age 5.9 years, range 2-12 years); 314 children were identified with celiac disease. Questionnaires were given to pregnant women to collect information on use of iron-containing supplements, diet, anemia, and levels of hemoglobin.

RESULTS:

Celiac disease was diagnosed in 4.65 of 1000 children whose mothers took iron supplements while they were pregnant, compared with 3.15 of 1000 children whose mothers did not. After adjusting for children's age, sex, and age of gluten introduction, and the presence of celiac disease in mothers, iron supplementation during pregnancy remained significantly associated with celiac disease in children (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.68; P = .019). However, celiac disease was not associated with the mothers' intake of iron from foods (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03). Anemia before or during the early stages of pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of celiac disease in children (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.84-2.00; P = .24). The use of iron supplements during pregnancy remained significantly associated with celiac disease in children after adjusting for children who were given iron supplements before 18 months of age, which itself was associated with celiac disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a prospective Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study, we found an increased risk of celiac disease in children whose mothers used iron supplements during pregnancy; this association does not appear to arise from maternal anemia.

KEYWORDS:

Enteropathy; Genetic Factor; Immune Development; MoBa Study

Comment in

PMID:
24112997
PMCID:
PMC3984974
DOI:
10.1016/j.cgh.2013.09.061
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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