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J Vet Intern Med. 2013 Nov-Dec;27(6):1292-304. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12192. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism: 2012 ACVIM consensus statement (small animal).

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Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.


This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism. The possibility that a patient has hyperadrenocorticism is based on the history and physical examination. Endocrine tests should be performed only when clinical signs consistent with HAC are present. None of the biochemical screening or differentiating tests for hyperadrenocorticism are perfect. Imaging can also play a role. Awareness of hyperadrenocorticism has heightened over time. Thus, case presentation is more subtle. Due to the changes in manifestations as well as test technology the Panel believes that references ranges should be reestablished. The role of cortisol precursors and sex hormones in causing a syndrome of occult hyperadrenocorticism remains unclear.


Adrenal cortex; Cushing's syndrome; Dog; Pituitary

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