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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Oct;1302:35-41. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12277. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Systemic control of brown fat thermogenesis: integration of peripheral and central signals.

Author information

1
Research Group Adipocyte Development, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Nuthetal, Germany.
2
Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Abstract

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is of great scientific interest as a potential target to treat obesity. The development of novel strategies to quantify brown fat thermogenesis in adult humans now enables minimally invasive assessment of novel pharmacotherapeutics. Input from the central nervous system via sympathetic efferents is widely regarded as the key controller of BAT-mediated thermogenesis in response to changes in body temperature or nutrient availability. More recently, however, it has become clear that locally secreted signals and endocrine factors originating from multiple organs can control the recruitment of brown adipocytes and, more importantly, induce thermogenesis in brown fat. Thus, they provide an attractive strategy to fine-tune brown fat thermogenesis independent of classical temperature sensing. Here, we summarize recent findings on bone morphogenetic protein signaling as an example of secreted factors in the regulation of brown adipocyte formation and systemic control of energy metabolism. We further highlight endocrine communication routes between the different types of brown adipocytes and other organs that contribute to regulation of thermogenesis. Thus, emerging evidence suggests that the classical mechanisms of central temperature sensing and sympathetic nervous system-driven thermogenesis are complemented by local and endocrine signals to determine systemic energy homeostasis.

KEYWORDS:

bone morphogenetic proteins; brown adipose tissue; systemic thermogenic capacity

PMID:
24111913
PMCID:
PMC3805713
DOI:
10.1111/nyas.12277
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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