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Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013;2013:221-4. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609477.

Basis of monitoring central blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters by peripheral arterial pulse waveform analyses.


In hypertension clinics, central blood pressure (CBP) should be estimated, instead of directly measured, by the "signal processing" of a noninvasive peripheral pressure waveform. This paper deals with the data obtained in our three separate studies focusing on a major estimation method, i.e., radial artery late systolic shoulder pressure (rSBP2)-based CBP estimation. Study 1: Using a wave separation analysis of precise animal data of pressure wave transmission along the upper-limb arteries, we first demonstrate that pulse pressure amplification is largely attributable to local wave reflection alone. Study 2: A frequency component analysis of simultaneously recorded human central and radial artery pressure waveforms showed a predominance of lower (1st+2nd) harmonic components in determining the central augmentation peak amplitude. The features of a central pressure waveform, including its phase property, may contribute to the less-altered transmission of augmentation peak pressure to rSBP2. Study 3: Comparisons of noninvasive rSBP2 with direct or estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) revealed broad agreement but also augmentation-dependent biases. Based on the features of the biases as well as the counterbalanced relationship between pulse pressure amplification and the transmission-induced alterations of augmentation peak amplitude observed in Study 2, we propose an improved cSBP estimate, SBPm, the simple arithmetic mean of rSBP2 and peripheral systolic blood pressure.

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