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World J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 26;5(9):337-46. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v5.i9.337.

Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease.

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Yan-Chiou Ku, Nursing Department, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan.


Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases.


Cardiovascular disease; Morbidity; Mortality; Review; Vitamin D

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