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Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2013 Jun;36(6):411-9.

[Analysis of resistance tendency of bloodstream-infecting pathogens in China].

[Article in Chinese]

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Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100191, China (Email:



To investigate the resistance profiles and the trend of bloodstream-infecting pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients during 2004-2010.


The bloodstream isolates were collected from 18 hospitals in 17 cities. Minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) were determined using the agar dilution method recommended by CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute), and susceptibility results were analyzed according to the 2011 CLSI guideline.


Among the 2004-2005, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 periods, the proportions of clinical isolates were similar; 43.1% (149 isolates), 34.0% (151 isolates) and 47.5% (776 isolates) for Gram positive strains, 56.9% (197 isolates), 66.0% (293 isolates) and 52.5% (858 isolates) for Gram negative strains, respectively. The isolating rate of MRSA was 54.1% (20/37) in 2007-2008, which was the highest among the 3 periods during 2004 to 2010, while it decreased in 2009-2010 (36.5%, 62/170). The MRCNS proportions were similar across the 3 periods. One (1.8%) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and 1 linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis were found. Although the isolating rates of penicillin non-sensitive strains (oral) were similar between 2009-2010 and 2007-2008 [54.5% (6/11) and 53.9% (7/13), respectively], the resistant rates increased from 0% in 2007-2008 to 30.8% (4/13) in 2009-2010. The results were similar according to the non-meningitis criterion (IV), and the susceptibility rates decreased from 100.0% (11 isolates) in 2007-2008 to 84.6% (11/13) in 2009-2010. ESBL-harboring strains in E. coli were similar among the 3 periods during 2004 to 2010 [66.7% (30/45), 73.2% (71/97) and 67.9% (233/343), respectively]. ESBL-producing strains in Klebsilla pnuemoniae decreased year after year, 72.4% (21/29), 50.0% (18/36) and 41.1% (65/158) in 2004-2005, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010, respectively. Except that the sensitive rate of Enterobacter cloacae to ertapenem was 80% (32/40), the sensitive rates of other strains to carbapenems were still above 90% and the resistance rates were less than 5%. Acinetobacter baumannii had the highest multi-drug resistance rate (81.8%, 81/99). One strain (1.0%, 1/99) of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in 2009-2010 was reported to be pan-resistant.


We are facing a more serious situation of bacterial resistance. Acinetobacter baumannii resistance was most serious, usually with the characteristics of multiple drug resistance, and even pan-resistance. Carbapenems remain to be the most effective against enterobacteriaceae. Strains resistant to novel antibiotics (linezolid and tigecycline) have emerged.

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