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Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013 Dec;9(12):713-23. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.184. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis and treatment.

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Diabetes Division, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 75 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia.


Nephropathy remains a major cause of morbidity and a key determinant of mortality in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research is ongoing to identify biomarkers that in addition to albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate assist in the prediction and monitoring of renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Current strategies to treat this condition focus on intensification of glycaemic control and excellent control of blood pressure using regimens based on blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. Other approaches to control blood pressure and afford renoprotection are under active clinical investigation, including renal denervation and endothelin receptor antagonism. With increasing understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes implicated in diabetic nephropathy, new specific renoprotective treatment strategies are anticipated to become available over the next few years.

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