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Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;157(1):9-25.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2013.08.010. Epub 2013 Oct 5.

Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: an evidence-based systematic review.

Author information

1
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address: ophwty@nus.edu.sg.
2
Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.
3
Value Demonstration Practice, Oxford PharmaGenesis Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom.
4
Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To summarize the epidemiology of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and their impact on vision.

DESIGN:

Systematic literature review of all English-language studies evaluating the epidemiology and visual burden of pathologic myopia or myopic CNV.

METHODS:

PubMed and EMBASE were searched with no time limits using predefined search strings for English-language studies evaluating the epidemiology and visual burden of pathologic myopia and myopic CNV.

RESULTS:

In total, 39 relevant publications were identified. Population-based studies reported pathologic myopia to be the first to third most frequent cause of blindness. The prevalence of pathologic myopia was reported to be 0.9%-3.1%, and the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to pathologic myopia ranged from 0.1%-0.5% (European studies) and from 0.2%-1.4% (Asian studies). The prevalence of CNV in individuals with pathologic myopia was reported to be 5.2%-11.3%, and was bilateral in approximately 15% of patients. All studies of visual outcome in patients with myopic CNV (duration ranging from less than 3 months to 21.5 years) reported deterioration in best-corrected visual acuity over time. Older age, subfoveal CNV location, and larger baseline lesion size were predictors of worse visual outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pathologic myopia is an important cause of vision loss worldwide, affecting up to 3% of the population. Of these, a substantial proportion of patients develop myopic CNV, which mostly causes a significant progressive decrease in visual acuity. This condition should therefore be a target for new treatment strategies.

PMID:
24099276
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajo.2013.08.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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