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PLoS One. 2013 Sep 30;8(9):e75409. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075409. eCollection 2013.

Characterization of the Kingella kingae polysaccharide capsule and exopolysaccharide.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Abstract

Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269-492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo), and galactose (Gal). Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3)-β-GalpNAc-(1→5)-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5)-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3)-β-GalpNAc-(1→5)-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5)-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization.

PMID:
24098695
PMCID:
PMC3787102
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0075409
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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