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PLoS One. 2013 Sep 30;8(9):e75353. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075353. eCollection 2013.

Unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples receiving integrated HIV counseling, testing, and family planning services in Zambia.

Author information

1
Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America ; Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort.

DESIGN:

Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos.

METHODS:

Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling.

RESULTS:

The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (p<0.05) with time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users in multivariate analysis included the man wanting more children, the woman being HIV negative versus having stage IV HIV disease, and the woman reporting: younger age, no previous OCP use, missed OCPs, or sex without a condom.

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522.

PMID:
24098692
PMCID:
PMC3787093
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0075353
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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