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PLoS One. 2013 Oct 2;8(10):e75103. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075103. eCollection 2013.

Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin suppresses effective innate and adaptive immune responses in a murine dermonecrosis model.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Disease, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America.

Abstract

An optimal host response against Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) is dependent on IL-1β and IL-17 mediated abscess formation. Alpha toxin (AT), an essential virulence factor for SSTI, has been reported to damage tissue integrity; however its effect on the immune response has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that infection with USA300 AT isogenic mutant (Δhla), or passive immunization with an AT neutralizing mAb, 2A3, 24 h prior to infection with wild type USA300 (WT), resulted in dermonecrotic lesion size reduction, and robust neutrophil infiltration. Infiltration correlates with increase in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as enhanced bacterial clearance relative to immunization with a negative control mAb. In addition, infection with Δhla, or with WT +2A3, resulted in an early influx of innate IL-17(+)γδT cells and a more rapid induction of an adaptive immune response as measured by Th1 and Th17 cell recruitment at the site of infection. These results are the first direct evidence of a role for AT in subverting the innate and adaptive immune responses during a S. aureus SSTI. Further, these effects of AT can be overcome with a high affinity anti-AT mAb resulting in a reduction in disease severity.

PMID:
24098366
PMCID:
PMC3788755
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0075103
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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