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PLoS One. 2013 Oct 3;8(10):e74642. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074642. eCollection 2013.

Genome-wide association study of gene by smoking interactions in coronary artery calcification.

Author information

1
Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e93722.

Abstract

Many GWAS have identified novel loci associated with common diseases, but have focused only on main effects of individual genetic variants rather than interactions with environmental factors (GxE). Identification of GxE interactions is particularly important for coronary heart disease (CHD), a major preventable source of morbidity and mortality with strong non-genetic risk factors. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CHD, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) is directly correlated with quantity of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. In the current study, we tested for genetic variants influencing extent of CAC via interaction with smoking (GxS), by conducting a GxS discovery GWAS in Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) sibships (N = 915 European Americans) followed by replication in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) sibships (N = 1025 European Americans). Generalized estimating equations accounted for the correlation within sibships in strata-specific groups of smokers and nonsmokers, as well as GxS interaction. Primary analysis found SNPs that showed suggestive associations (p≤10(-5)) in GENOA GWAS, but these index SNPs did not replicate in FHS. However, secondary analysis was able to replicate candidate gene regions in FHS using other SNPs (+/-250 kb of GENOA index SNP). In smoker and nonsmoker groups, replicated genes included TCF7L2 (p = 6.0×10(-5)) and WWOX (p = 4.5×10(-6)); and TNFRSF8 (p = 7.8×10(-5)), respectively. For GxS interactions, replicated genes included TBC1D4 (p = 6.9×10(-5)) and ADAMTS9 (P = 7.1×10(-5)). Interestingly, these genes are involved in inflammatory pathways mediated by the NF-κB axis. Since smoking is known to induce chronic and systemic inflammation, association of these genes likely reflects roles in CAC development via inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, the NF-κB axis regulates bone remodeling, a key physiological process in CAC development. In conclusion, GxS GWAS has yielded evidence for novel loci that are associated with CAC via interaction with smoking, providing promising new targets for future population-based and functional studies of CAC development.

PMID:
24098343
PMCID:
PMC3789744
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0074642
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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