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J Biol Chem. 2013 Nov 8;288(45):32553-62. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.472373. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 heterodimers are required for PAR1-enhanced cleavage of PAR4 by α-thrombin.

Author information

1
From the Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106.

Abstract

Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with α-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated; however, when the cells were stimulated with 10 nm α-thrombin, we were able to detect a strong interaction between PAR1 and PAR4 by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. In contrast, activating the receptors without cleavage using PAR1 and PAR4 agonist peptides (TFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) did not enhance heterodimer formation. Preventing PAR1 or PAR4 cleavage with point mutations or hirugen also prevented the induction of heterodimers. To further characterize the PAR1-PAR4 interactions, we mapped the heterodimer interface by introducing point mutations in transmembrane helix 4 of PAR1 or PAR4 that prevented heterodimer formation. Finally, we show that mutations in PAR1 or PAR4 at the heterodimer interface prevented PAR1-assisted cleavage of PAR4. These data demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR4 require allosteric changes induced via receptor cleavage by α-thrombin to mediate heterodimer formation, and we have determined the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer interface. Our findings show that PAR1 and PAR4 have dynamic interactions on the cell surface that should be taken into account when developing and characterizing PAR antagonists.

KEYWORDS:

Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET); G-protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR); PAR1; PAR4; Protease-activated Receptor; Protein-Protein Interactions; Receptor Regulation; Thrombin

PMID:
24097976
PMCID:
PMC3820888
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M113.472373
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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