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Nat Genet. 2013 Nov;45(11):1274-1283. doi: 10.1038/ng.2797. Epub 2013 Oct 6.

Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.

Willer CJ#1,2,3,4, Schmidt EM#2, Sengupta S#4, Peloso GM5,6,7, Gustafsson S8,9, Kanoni S10, Ganna A8,9,11, Chen J4, Buchkovich ML12, Mora S13,14, Beckmann JS15,16, Bragg-Gresham JL4, Chang HY17, Demirkan A18, Den Hertog HM19, Do R6, Donnelly LA20, Ehret GB21,22, Esko T7,23,24, Feitosa MF25, Ferreira T26, Fischer K23, Fontanillas P7, Fraser RM27, Freitag DF28, Gurdasani D10,28, Heikkilä K29, Hyppönen E30, Isaacs A18,31, Jackson AU4, Johansson Å32,33, Johnson T34,35, Kaakinen M36,37, Kettunen J38,39, Kleber ME40,41, Li X42, Luan J43, Lyytikäinen LP44,45, Magnusson PKE11, Mangino M46, Mihailov E23,24, Montasser ME47, Müller-Nurasyid M48,49,50, Nolte IM51, O'Connell JR47, Palmer CD7,52,53, Perola M23,38,39, Petersen AK48, Sanna S54, Saxena R55, Service SK56, Shah S57, Shungin D58,59,60, Sidore C4,54,61, Song C8,9,11, Strawbridge RJ62,63, Surakka I38,39, Tanaka T64, Teslovich TM4, Thorleifsson G65, Van den Herik EG19, Voight BF66,67, Volcik KA68, Waite LL69, Wong A70, Wu Y12, Zhang W71,72, Absher D69, Asiki G73, Barroso I10,74, Been LF75, Bolton JL27, Bonnycastle LL76, Brambilla P77, Burnett MS78, Cesana G79, Dimitriou M80, Doney ASF20, Döring A81,82, Elliott P37,83, Epstein SE78, Ingi Eyjolfsson G84, Gigante B85, Goodarzi MO86, Grallert H87, Gravito ML75, Groves CJ88, Hallmans G89, Hartikainen AL90, Hayward C91, Hernandez D92, Hicks AA93, Holm H65, Hung YJ94, Illig T87,95, Jones MR86, Kaleebu P73, Kastelein JJP96, Khaw KT97, Kim E42, Klopp N87,95, Komulainen P98, Kumari M57, Langenberg C43, Lehtimäki T44,45, Lin SY99, Lindström J100, Loos RJF43,101,102,103, Mach F21, McArdle WL104, Meisinger C81, Mitchell BD47, Müller G105, Nagaraja R106, Narisu N76, Nieminen TVM107,108,109, Nsubuga RN73, Olafsson I110, Ong KK43,70, Palotie A38,111,112, Papamarkou T10,28,113, Pomilla C10,28, Pouta A90,114, Rader DJ115,116, Reilly MP115,116, Ridker PM13,14, Rivadeneira F117,118,119, Rudan I27, Ruokonen A120, Samani N121,122, Scharnagl H123, Seeley J73,124, Silander K38,39, Stančáková A125, Stirrups K10, Swift AJ76, Tiret L126, Uitterlinden AG117,118,119, van Pelt LJ127,128, Vedantam S7,52,53, Wainwright N10,28, Wijmenga C128,129, Wild SH27, Willemsen G130, Wilsgaard T131, Wilson JF27, Young EH10,28, Zhao JH43, Adair LS132, Arveiler D133, Assimes TL134, Bandinelli S135, Bennett F136, Bochud M137, Boehm BO138,139, Boomsma DI130, Borecki IB25, Bornstein SR140, Bovet P137,141, Burnier M142, Campbell H27, Chakravarti A22, Chambers JC71,72,143, Chen YI144,145, Collins FS76, Cooper RS146, Danesh J28, Dedoussis G80, de Faire U85, Feranil AB147, Ferrières J148, Ferrucci L64, Freimer NB56,149, Gieger C48, Groop LC150,151, Gudnason V152, Gyllensten U32, Hamsten A62,63,153, Harris TB154, Hingorani A57, Hirschhorn JN7,52,53, Hofman A117,119, Hovingh GK96, Hsiung CA155, Humphries SE156, Hunt SC157, Hveem K158, Iribarren C159, Järvelin MR36,37,83,114,160, Jula A161, Kähönen M162, Kaprio J29,38,163, Kesäniemi A164, Kivimaki M57, Kooner JS72,143,165, Koudstaal PJ19, Krauss RM166, Kuh D70, Kuusisto J167, Kyvik KO168,169, Laakso M167, Lakka TA98,170, Lind L171, Lindgren CM26, Martin NG172, März W41,123,173, McCarthy MI26,88, McKenzie CA174, Meneton P175, Metspalu A23,24, Moilanen L176, Morris AD20, Munroe PB34,35, Njølstad I131, Pedersen NL11, Power C30, Pramstaller PP93,177,178, Price JF27, Psaty BM179,180, Quertermous T134, Rauramaa R98,181, Saleheen D28,182,183, Salomaa V184, Sanghera DK75, Saramies J185, Schwarz PEH140,186, Sheu WH187, Shuldiner AR47,188, Siegbahn A8,33,171, Spector TD46, Stefansson K65,189, Strachan DP190, Tayo BO146, Tremoli E191, Tuomilehto J100,192,193,194, Uusitupa M195,196, van Duijn CM18,31, Vollenweider P197, Wallentin L33,171, Wareham NJ43, Whitfield JB172, Wolffenbuttel BHR128,198, Ordovas JM199,200,201, Boerwinkle E68, Palmer CNA20, Thorsteinsdottir U65,189, Chasman DI13,14, Rotter JI42, Franks PW58,60,202, Ripatti S10,38,39, Cupples LA5,203, Sandhu MS10,28, Rich SS204, Boehnke M#4, Deloukas P#10, Kathiresan S#6,7,205,206, Mohlke KL#12, Ingelsson E#8,9,26, Abecasis GR#4; Global Lipids Genetics Consortium.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
2
Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
3
Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
4
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.
6
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
7
Broad Institute, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
8
Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
9
Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
10
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, CB10 1SA, Hinxton, United Kingdom.
11
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
12
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.
13
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave., Boston MA 02215, USA.
14
Harvard Medical School, Boston MA 02115, USA.
15
Service of Medical Genetics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
16
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
17
Division of Preventive Medicine and Health Services Research, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan.
18
Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
19
Department of Neurology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
20
Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School. Dundee, DD1 9SY, United Kingdom.
21
Cardiology, Department of Specialities of Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland.
22
Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
23
Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
24
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
25
Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, USA.
26
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7BN, United Kingdom.
27
Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, Scotland, United Kingdom.
28
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
29
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
30
Centre For Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics/MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College of London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.
31
Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, the Netherlands.
32
Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
33
Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
34
Genome Centre, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
35
Clinical Pharmacology, NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
36
Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
37
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
38
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Finland.
39
Public Health Genomics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
40
Department of Internal Medicine II - Cardiology, University of Ulm Medical Centre, Ulm, Germany.
41
Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Ludolf-Krehl-Strasse 7-11, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.
42
Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
43
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Box 285, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.
44
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere 33520, Finland.
45
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere 33014, Finland.
46
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
47
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
48
Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
49
Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
50
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
51
Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
52
Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
53
Division of Genetics, Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
54
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, CNR, Monserrato, 09042, Italy.
55
Massachusetts General Hospital/Broad Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
56
Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, The Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
57
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Deparment of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
58
Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic & Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Scania University Hosptial, Malmö, Sweden.
59
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
60
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Unit of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
61
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita di Sassari, 07100 SS, Italy.
62
Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
63
Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
64
Clinical Research Branch, National Institute Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
65
deCODE Genetics/Amgen, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
66
Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania - School of Medicine, Philadelphia PA, 19104, USA.
67
Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania - School of Medicine, Philadelphia PA, 19104, USA.
68
Human Genetics Center, University of Texas Health Science Center - School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
69
HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL, USA.
70
MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, 33 Bedford Place, London, WC1B 5JU, United Kingdom.
71
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
72
Ealing Hospital, Southall, Middlesex UB1 3HW, United Kingdom.
73
MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda.
74
University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Level 4, Institute of Metabolic Science Box 289 Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK.
75
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.
76
Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
77
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy.
78
MedStar Health Research Institute, 6525 Belcrest Road, Suite 700, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.
79
Research Centre on Public Health, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy.
80
Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Str, Athens, Greece.
81
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
82
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
83
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK.
84
The Laboratory in Mjodd, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland.
85
Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
86
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
87
Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
88
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom.
89
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
90
Department of Clinical Sciences/Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
91
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
92
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
93
Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy - Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
94
Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
95
Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Hannover 30625, Germany.
96
Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
97
Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
98
Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Kuopio, Finland.
99
Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
100
Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland.
101
The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
102
The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at ount Sinai, New York, USA.
103
The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.
104
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom.
105
Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometrics, University of Dresden, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
106
Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD21224, USA.
107
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tamperew 33014, Finland.
108
Department of Internal Medicine, Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland.
109
Division of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
110
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Landspitali University Hospital, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
111
Department of Medical Genetics, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
112
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United ingdom.
113
Department of Statistical Sciences, University College of London, London, United Kingdom.
114
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland.
115
Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Building 421, Translational Research Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-5158, USA.
116
Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Building 421, Translational Research Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-5158, USA.
117
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
118
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
119
Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging NCHA), Leiden, The Netherlands.
120
Department of Clinical Sciences/Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
121
National Institute for Health Research Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.
122
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, LE3 9QP, UK.
123
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Austria.
124
School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom.
125
University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.
126
INSERM UMRS 937, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France.
127
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
128
LifeLines Cohort Study, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
129
Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
130
Department of Biological Psychology, VU Univ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
131
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
132
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
133
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, EA 3430, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg, France.
134
Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
135
Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), Florence, Italy.
136
Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.
137
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Route de la Corniche 10, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland.
138
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulm University Medical Centre, Ulm, Germany.
139
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
140
Department of Medicine III, University of Dresden, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
141
Ministry of Health, Victoria, Republic of Seychelles.
142
Service of Nephrology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
143
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.
144
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.
145
Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
146
Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Medical School, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.
147
Office of Population Studies Foundation, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines.
148
Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, Toulouse, France.
149
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
150
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-20502, Malmö, Sweden.
151
Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, FI-00029 Helsinki, Finland.
152
Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland.
153
Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
154
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Ageing, Bethesda, MD, USA.
155
Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan.
156
Cardiovascular Genetics, BHF Laboratories, Institute Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
157
Cardiovascular Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
158
HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway.
159
Kaiser Permanente, Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA.
160
Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
161
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
162
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere 33014, Finland.
163
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
164
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oulu and Clinical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
165
National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
166
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Junior Way, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.
167
Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.
168
Institute of Regional Health Services Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
169
Odense Patient data Explorative Network (OPEN), Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
170
Institute of Biomedicine/Physiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Finland.
171
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
172
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Locked Bag 2000, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Queensland 4029, Australia.
173
Synlab Academy, Synlab Services GmbH,Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße 25, 68165 Mannheim, Germany.
174
Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Tropical Medicine Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.
175
U872 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France.
176
Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
177
Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy.
178
Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
179
Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
180
Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA.
181
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
182
Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan.
183
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
184
Unit of Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
185
South Karelia Central Hospital, Lappeenranta, Finland.
186
Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Dresden, Germany.
187
Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
188
Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland.
189
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland.
190
Division of Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom.
191
Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Monzino Cardiology Center, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.
192
Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria.
193
King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
194
Red RECAVA Grupo RD06/0014/0015, Hospital Universitario La Paz, 28046.
195
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
196
Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
197
Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland.
198
Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
199
Department of Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Population Genetics, National Center for rdiovascular Investigation, Madrid, Spain.
200
IMDEA-Alimentacion, Madrid, Spain.
201
Nutrition and Genomics Laboratory, Jean Mayer-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
202
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
203
Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA.
204
Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
205
Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
206
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.

PMID:
24097068
PMCID:
PMC3838666
DOI:
10.1038/ng.2797
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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