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Mar Pollut Bull. 2013 Nov 15;76(1-2):146-57. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.09.014. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

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Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of the Salento, SP Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. Electronic address:


The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA.


Daily dietary intakes; Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); Transitional water ecosystems; Trophic web enrichments

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