Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014 Feb;67(2):e42-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2013.09.026. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Simulation of plastic surgery and microvascular procedures using perfused fresh human cadavers.

Author information

1
Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: Joseph.Carey@med.usc.edu.
2
Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
3
Surgical Skills Simulation & Education Center, Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
4
Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Surgical simulation models are often limited by their lack of fidelity, which hinders their essential purpose, making a better surgeon. Fresh cadaveric tissue is a superior model of simulation owing to its approximation of live tissue. One major unresolved difference between dead and live tissue is perfusion. Here, we propose a means of enhancing the fidelity of cadaveric simulation through the development of a perfused cadaveric model whereby simulation is further able to approach life-like surgery and teach one of the more technically demanding skills of plastic surgery: microsurgery.

METHOD:

Fresh tissue human cadavers were procured according to university protocol. Perfusion was performed via cannulation of large vessels, and arterial and venous pressure was maintained by centrifugal circulation. Skin perfusion was evaluated with incisions in the perfused regions and was evaluated using indocyanine green angiography. Surgical simulations were selected to broadly evaluate applicability to plastic surgical education.

RESULT:

Surgical simulation of 38 procedures ranging in complexity from skin excisions to microsurgical cases was performed with high priority given to the accurate simulation of clinical procedures. Flap dissections included perforator flaps, muscle flaps, and fasciocutaneous flaps. Effective perfusion was noted with ICG angiography and notable bleeding vessels. Microsurgical flap transfer was successfully performed.

CONCLUSION:

We report the establishment of a high fidelity surgical simulation using a perfused fresh tissue model in a realistic environment akin to the operating room. We anticipate utilization of this model prior to entering the operating room will enhance surgical ability and offer a valuable resource in plastic surgical education.

KEYWORDS:

Fresh tissue dissection; Microsurgery; Resident education; Resident work hour restrictions; Surgical education; Surgical simulation

PMID:
24094541
DOI:
10.1016/j.bjps.2013.09.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center