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Blood. 2013 Nov 14;122(20):3415-22. doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-05-427708. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Inflammation, obesity, and thrombosis.

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Department of Cell Biology, Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, San Diego, CA; and.


Clinical and epidemiological studies support a connection between obesity and thrombosis, involving elevated expression of the prothrombotic molecules plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor (TF) and increased platelet activation. Cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome-associated disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic steatosis, involve inflammation elicited by infiltration and activation of immune cells, particularly macrophages, into adipose tissue. Although TF has been clearly linked to a procoagulant state in obesity, emerging genetic and pharmacologic evidence indicate that TF signaling via G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PAR2, PAR1) additionally drives multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome. TF-PAR2 signaling in adipocytes contributes to diet-induced obesity by decreasing metabolism and energy expenditure, whereas TF-PAR2 signaling in hematopoietic and myeloid cells drives adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. TF-initiated coagulation leading to thrombin-PAR1 signaling also contributes to diet-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in certain models. Thus, in obese patients, clinical markers of a prothrombotic state may indicate a risk for the development of complications of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, TF-induced signaling could provide new therapeutic targets for drug development at the intersection between obesity, inflammation, and thrombosis.

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