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Psychometrika. 2013 Oct;78(4):830-55. doi: 10.1007/s11336-013-9333-5. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model: an application to simultaneous investigation of word and person contributions to multidimensional lexical representations.

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Vanderbilt University, Peabody #H213A, 230 Appleton Place, Nashville, TN, 37203, USA,


This paper presents an explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model and its application to reading data with multilevel item structure. The model includes multilevel random item parameters that allow consideration of variability in item parameters at both item and item group levels. Item-level random item parameters were included to model unexplained variance remaining when item related covariates were used to explain variation in item difficulties. Item group-level random item parameters were included to model dependency in item responses among items having the same item stem. Using the model, this study examined the dimensionality of a person's word knowledge, termed lexical representation, and how aspects of morphological knowledge contributed to lexical representations for different persons, items, and item groups.

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