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Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013 Dec;31(8):762-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A interferes with the development of cerebellar granule neurons in mice and chicken.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:


In mice, prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A has been shown to affect neurogenesis and neuronal migration in cortex, resulting in disturbance of both neuronal positioning and the network formation between thalamus and cortex in the offspring brain. In the present study we investigated whether prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disturbs the neurodevelopment of the cerebellum. Two different model systems were used; offspring from two strains of mice from mothers receiving bisphenol A in the drinking water before mating, during gestation and lactation, and chicken embryos exposed to bisphenol A (in the egg) on embryonic day 16 for 24h before preparation of cerebellar granule cell cultures. In the cerebellum, tight regulation of the level of transcription factor Pax6 is critical for correct development of granule neurons. During the development, the Pax6 level in granule neurons is high when these cells are located in the external granule layer and during their migration to the internal granule layer, and it is then reduced. We report that bisphenol A induced an increase in the thickness of the external granule layer and also an increase in the total cerebellar Pax6 level in 11 days old mice offspring. In cultured chicken cerebellar granule neurons from bisphenol A injected eggs the Pax6 level was increased day 6 in vitro. Together, these findings indicate that bisphenol A may affect the granule neurons in the developing cerebellum and thereby may disturb the correct development of the cerebellum.


BPA; Bisphenol A; Cerebellar granule neuron; DIV; ED; EGL; H&E; IGL; Pax6; bisphenol A; days in vitro; embryonic day; external granule layer; hematoxylin and eosin; internal granule layer

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