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Nefrologia. 2013;33(5):650-6. doi: 10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2013.May.12036.

Carotid artery function in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nephrotic patients are prone to atherosclerosis in consequence of frequent exposures to hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and immunosuppressive drugs.

OBJECTIVES:

We studied the carotid parameters as early indicators of atherosclerosis in children with nephrotic syndrome.

METHODS:

Between 2008 and 2011, 51 children with history of nephrotic syndrome enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria were: idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with normal serum complement, at least one year after initiation of disease, glomerular filtration rate more than 20 mL/min/1.73 m², age over two years old at the time of study. Seventy-five healthy sex-age-matched children considered as a control group. Carotid function parameters and left ventricular mass index were studied in nephrotic children.

RESULTS:

Steroid sensitive, resistant, and dependent nephrotic syndrome included one-third each. The mean carotid intima-media thickness (mm) in nephrotic children was 0.42 (±.14) while the mean cIMT in controls was 0.37 (±.08) (p-value <.05). After log transformation, General Linear Multivariate analysis revealed significant difference of carotid intima-media thickness in nephrotic patients (p-value <.001). Subsequently, the factor that influenced on cIMT was duration of disease (P<.05). One-half of nephrotic children who had echocardiography, showed left ventricular hypertrophy. It was correlated with carotid stiffness and systolic hypertension (P<.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Carotid intima-media thickness was thicker in nephrotic children. Carotid parameters were influenced by duration of disease and hypertension.

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