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Intern Med. 2013;52(19):2179-87. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Variations in inflammatory biomarkers following the addition of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes not controlled with metformin.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Italy.



The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition on adipose tissue inflammation remain obscure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of sitagliptin on the β-cell function and various inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetic patients.


After a run-in period of taking metformin, 178 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were randomized to take sitagliptin at a dose of 100 mg once a day or a placebo in addition to metformin for 12 months. We evaluated the following parameters at three, six, nine and twelve months: body mass index (BMI), glycemic control, the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), the homeostasis model assessment β-cell function index (HOMA-β), the proinsulin/fasting plasma insulin ratio (Pr/FPI ratio) and the levels of fasting plasma insulin (FPI), fasting plasma proinsulin (FPPr), C-peptide, glucagon, resistin, vaspin, omentin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Before and twelve months after the addition of sitagliptin, the patients underwent combined euglycemic hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamping with subsequent arginine stimulation to assess insulin sensitivity and secretion.


Treatment with sitagliptin + metformin was more effective than placebo + metformin in improving glycemic control, the HOMA-IR and the glucagon level and increasing the HOMA-β and all β-cell measurements after combined euglycemic hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamping with subsequent arginine stimulation. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, sitagliptin + metformin more effectively reduced the levels of resistin, vaspin and omentin-1 than placebo + metformin.


When treatment with metformin alone is not adequate for obtaining glycemic control, the addition of sitagliptin can be considered due to its actions in preserving the β-cell function and reducing the levels of biomarkers of inflammation.

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