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PLoS One. 2013 Sep 23;8(9):e75558. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075558. eCollection 2013.

Comparison of the prevalence of common bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx and nasopharynx of gambian infants.

Author information

1
Vaccinology Theme, Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

CRM- based pneumococcal conjugate vaccines generally have little impact on the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage because of serotype replacement. In contrast, protein vaccines could substantially reduce the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage with potential microbiological and clinical consequences. Therefore, trials of pneumococcal protein vaccines need to evaluate their impact on carriage of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in addition to the pneumococcus.

METHODS:

As a prelude to a trial of an investigational pneumococcal vaccine containing pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugates and pneumococcal proteins, the prevalence of carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella species and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx of 1030 Gambian infants (median age 35 weeks) was determined. An oropharyngeal swab was obtained at the same time from the first 371 infants enrolled. Standard microbiological techniques were used to evaluate the bacterial flora of the pharynx and to compare that found in the oropharynx and in the nasopharynx.

RESULTS:

The overall pneumococcal carriage rate was high. Isolation rates of S. pneumoniae and Moraxella species were significantly higher using nasopharyngeal rather than oropharyngeal swabs (76.1% [95% CI 73.4%,78.7%] vs. 21.3% [95% CI 17.2%,25.8%] and 48.9% [95% CI 45.8%, 52.0%] vs. 20.5% % [95% CI 16.5%,25.0%] respectively). In contrast, S. aureus and H. influenzae were isolated more frequently from oropharyngeal than from nasopharyngeal swabs (65.0% [95% CI 59.9%, 69.8%] vs. 33.6% [95% CI 30.7%, 36.5%] and 31.8% [95% CI 16.5%, 25.0%] vs. 22.4% [95% CI 19.9%, 25.1%] respectively). No group A β haemolytic streptococci were isolated.

CONCLUSION:

Collection of an oropharyngeal swab in addition to a nasopharyngeal swab will provide little additional information on the impact of a novel pneumococcal vaccine on pneumococcal carriage but it might provide additional, valuable information on the impact of the vaccine on the overall microbiota of the pharynx.

PMID:
24086570
PMCID:
PMC3781055
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0075558
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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