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J Endourol. 2014 Mar;28(3):275-9. doi: 10.1089/end.2013.0435. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Optic-guided vaginal repair of vesicovaginal fistula.

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Department of Urology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine , Denizli, Turkey .



The transvaginal approach for the repair of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) can sometimes be challenging, especially in fistulas located near the vaginal cuff. We describe a simple technique for the vaginal repair of VVF with the use of endoscopic optics.


Three women were admitted to our department with urinary incontinence after total hysterectomy. Assessment with a clinical examination, imaging, and cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of VVF. All patients were operated on between December 2012 and January 2013. The operations were conducted under spinal anesthesia with the patients in the lithotomy position. Cystoscopy was performed and retrograde pyelography ruled out any ureteral damage or fistula. A 10F to 12F Foley catheter was inserted into the fistula. From this point, the operation proceeded with optic vision, mimicking laparoscopic dissection and suturing techniques using a standard 5 mm, 30-degree optic lens, a surgical monitor, and open surgical instruments. The fistula was circumferentially incised and widely mobilized from the surrounding tissues and closed without tension in two layers. A urethral Foley catheter was inserted and maintained for 14 days.


The mean operative time was 70 (range 60-80) minutes. Estimated blood loss was minimal. All patients were discharged at postoperative day 1. No complications were observed. At the postoperative first and third month follow-up visits, all patients were voiding without any urinary leakage or complaints.


The use of optics in the vaginal repair of VVF is a useful technique. Optic guidance facilitates surgical vision, dissection, and hemostasis. It is also excellent for surgeon comfort, ergonomics, and resident training.

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