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Dan Med J. 2013 Oct;60(10):A4674.

Promising results after single-stage reconstruction of the nipple and areola complex.

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Plastikkirurgisk Afdeling, Vejle Sygehus, 7100 Vejle, Denmark.



Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) traditionally marks the end of breast reconstruction. Several different surgical techniques have been described, but most are staged procedures. This paper describes a simple single-stage approach.


We used a technique based on a local flap for reconstruction of the nipple in combination with immediate intradermal tattooing for reconstruction of the areola.


We reviewed the outcome of 22 cases of women who had simple single-stage reconstruction over a period of one year. We found no major and only two minor complications including one case of partial flap necrosis and one case of infection. Only three patients needed additional tattooing after a three-month period. The cosmetic outcome was satisfactory and none of the patients needed corrective procedures. The mean procedure time for unilateral reconstruction was 43 min. (30-50 min.).


This simple single-stage NAC reconstruction seems beneficial for both patient and surgeon as it seems to be associated with faster reconstruction and reduced procedure-related time without compromising the aesthetic outcome or the morbidity associated with surgery.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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