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J Med Case Rep. 2013 Oct 1;7:229. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-7-229.

A man with small vessel vasculitis presenting with brachial diplegia, multiple cranial mononeuropathies and severe orthostatic hypotension in diabetes mellitus: a case report.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, MS NB 302, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ubogu@uab.edu.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

We report a rare case of fulminant vasculitic mononeuropathy resulting in brachial diplegia, with suspected brainstem and autonomic nervous system involvement in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 58-year-old Hispanic Caucasian man with diabetes mellitus presented with a 1-year history of progressive bilateral upper extremity weakness, orthostatic intolerance and progressive memory decline. Diagnostic evaluation including laboratory tests for progressive encephalopathies, systemic inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, electrodiagnostic studies, and nerve biopsy were performed. Clinical examination revealed moderate cognitive deficits on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale, bilateral facial weakness and weakness of bilateral shoulder girdle and intrinsic hand muscles. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses revealed elevated protein and an elevated immunoglobulin G synthesis rate, suggesting an immune-mediated process. Further laboratory work up was non-diagnostic. Electrodiagnostic studies demonstrated chronic asymmetric axonal mononeuropathies with ongoing denervation. A superficial radial nerve biopsy showed a chronic vasculitic neuropathy. Glucocorticosteroid treatment, symptomatic pharmacologic and supportive non-pharmacologic therapies resulted in improved clinical outcomes despite challenges with glycemic control.

CONCLUSIONS:

This case report emphasizes the importance of a thorough evaluation of atypical or uncommon neuromuscular presentations in diabetic patients without etiological presumptions. This is necessary in order to promptly establish a diagnosis, initiate appropriate therapies and prevent irreversible nerve injury.

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