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J Educ Health Promot. 2013 Jan 31;2:3. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.106641. eCollection 2013.

The effectiveness of educational intervention based on PRECEDE model on the level of stress among the elderly at elderly clubs.

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Department of Health Education, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.



The elderly are vulnerable to negative effects of stress factors; so, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the PRECEDE model on stress level of the elderly and to control stress factors.


In this quasi-experimental study, 94 elderly people from the clubs for the elderly in Tehran were randomly divided into case and control groups in 2008-2009. Planning for the educational program was done according to the PRECEDE model. Before implementing the program, valid and reliable depression, anxiety, and stress questionnaires (DASS 21) were completed for both groups. The experimental group received the educational intervention based on the PRECEDE model (eight sessions, one session per week), and both groups were followed up two months after the intervention (the previous questionnaires were filled again). DASS 21 Scoring and Interpretation Generator was used for calculating scores of the questionnaires. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed by the SPSS 15 software using t-test, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney test at a significant level of P≤0.05.


The findings showed significant differences between the experimental group and control group in terms of predisposing factors of knowledge (P≤0.001) and attitude (P≤0.001), enabling factors (P≤0.001), reinforcing factors (P≤0.001), and functioning especially in deep breathing and relaxation techniques (P≤0.001). Mean scores and severity of stress were significant after the intervention (P≤0.001).


The findings of the present study confirmed the effectiveness of the PRECEDE model-based educational program on preventing or reducing stress level in the elderly.


Educational intervention; PRECEDE model; elderly; stress

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