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J Pediatr Neurosci. 2013 May;8(2):141-5. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.117850.

Neuropsychological impairment in early-onset hydrocephalus and epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep: A case report and literature review.

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Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna, Bologna Italy ; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.


Epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) is often characterized by a severe cognitive and behavioral impairment. Symptomatic cases also include patients with an early-onset hydrocephalus, but in literature detailed neuropsychological data on these subjects are not available. We describe the results of serial cognitive assessments in a girl with shunted early-onset hydrocephalus, followed by partial epilepsy complicated with CSWS at 4 years 10 months, in which a dramatic cognitive and behavioral deterioration occurred few months after CSWS onset. Adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment improved both clinical and electroencephalogram picture, but an impairment of visual perception, visual-motor coordination and executive functions persisted after CSWS disappearance. We hypothesize, in this case, an involvement of right occipital-parietal lobe and prefrontal lobe.


Choroid plexus papilloma; continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep; epilepsy; hydrocephalus; neuropsychological impairment

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