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Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Jan;32(1):183-7. doi: 10.1177/0748233713498460. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

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Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
Department of Pathology, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.


Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba.


Ginkgo biloba; Sodium fluoride; ascorbic acid; learning; memory disorders

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