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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2014 Apr;49(4):469-76. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2013.152. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Hematopoietic SCT with cryopreserved grafts: adverse reactions after transplantation and cryoprotectant removal before infusion.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
2
Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been successfully developed as a part of treatment protocols for a large number of clinical indications, and cryopreservation of both autologous and allogeneic sources of HSC grafts is increasingly being used to facilitate logistical challenges in coordinating the collection, processing, preparation, quality control testing and release of the final HSC product with delivery to the patient. Direct infusion of cryopreserved cell products into patients has been associated with the development of adverse reactions, ranging from relatively mild symptoms to much more serious, life-threatening complications, including allergic/gastrointestinal/cardiovascular/neurological complications, renal/hepatic dysfunctions, and so on. In many cases, the cryoprotective agent (CPA) used-which is typically dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-is believed to be the main causal agent of these adverse reactions and thus many studies recommend depletion of DMSO before cell infusion. In this paper, we will briefly review the history of HSC cryopreservation, the side effects reported after transplantation, along with advances in strategies for reducing the adverse reactions, including methods and devices for removal of DMSO. Strategies to minimize adverse effects include medication before and after transplantation, optimizing the infusion procedure, reducing the DMSO concentration or using alternative CPAs for cryopreservation and removing DMSO before infusion. For DMSO removal, besides the traditional and widely applied method of centrifugation, new approaches have been explored in the past decade, such as filtration by spinning membrane, stepwise dilution-centrifugation using rotating syringe, diffusion-based DMSO extraction in microfluidic channels, dialysis and dilution-filtration through hollow-fiber dialyzers and some instruments (CytoMate, Sepax S-100, Cobe 2991, microfluidic channels, dilution-filtration system, etc.) as well. However, challenges still remain: development of the optimal (fast, safe, simple, automated, controllable, effective and low cost) methods and devices for CPA removal with minimum cell loss and damage remains an unfilled need.

PMID:
24076548
PMCID:
PMC4420483
DOI:
10.1038/bmt.2013.152
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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