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Transpl Immunol. 2013 Dec;29(1-4):109-13. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2013.09.007. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Immune reconstitution syndrome-like entity in lung transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis.

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University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address:



Incidence, characteristics, and risk-factors for invasive aspergillosis (IA)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) in lung transplant recipients are not known.


Patients comprised 68 lung transplant recipients with proven/probable IA followed for 12 months. IRS was defined based on previously proposed criteria.


In all, 7.3% (5/68) of the patients developed IRS based on aforementioned criteria, a median of 56 days after initiation of antifungal therapy. This entity was associated with heart-lung transplantation (p=0.006), anti T-cell agent use (p=0.003), discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitor agent (p=0.002), and disseminated IA (p=0.069). In a risk assessment model, IRS developed in 0% (0/55) of the patients with none of the aforementioned factors, 28.6% (2/7) with one, 33.3% (1/3) with two, and in 1/1 patient with 3 factors (X(2) for trend p=0.0001). Three out of 5 patients with IRS died and 2 of 3 deaths in this group were due to chronic rejection.


Overall 7% of the lung transplant recipients with IA appear to develop an IRS-like entity. Clinically assessable factors can identify patients at risk for post-transplant IA-associated IRS. Deaths due to chronic rejection were significantly higher in patients with IRS than those without IRS.


Aspergillosis; Immune reconstitution syndrome; Lung transplant

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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