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Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;13(6):964-9. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2013.09.006. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 produced in brain: is this physiologically relevant?

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Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address:


Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is both a peripherally expressed incretin and a centrally active neuropeptide. Brain derived GLP-1, produced in preproglucagon (PPG) neurons located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and projecting to numerous brain regions, is ideally placed to activate central GLP-1 receptors in a range of autonomic control areas. In vivo analysis of central GLP-1 using GLP-1 receptor antagonists has demonstrated the control of a range of feeding responses mediated by GLP-1 receptor activation. Recent advances enabling identification and targeting of the neurons in the NTS has specifically implicated PPG neurons at the core of GLP-1 dependent central and peripheral control for short-term and long-term energy balance.

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